Thursday 26 November 2009

Removal and Detention of Sheikh Abdullah

Removal and Detention of Sheikh Abdullah Meanwhile, the expectation that Kashmir as an integral part of India would work out its destiny with the rest of the country in consonance with the ideals of secularism and democracy were belied with Sheikh Abdullah trying to change his stand after 1952 and beginning to think in terms of an Independent Kashmir. Consequently, the 'Sadar-e-Riyasat' removed Sheikh Abdullah from the Prime Ministership on 9 August 1953 and put him under detention. He was succeeded by Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad as Prime Minister. This event had been preceded by efforts of the Government of India to make Sheikh Abdullah to abide by the earlier commitments in the form of an agreement reached between him and the Government of India on 24 July 1952. This agreement, interalia, conceded elected Sadar-e-Riyasat, limited jurisdiction of Supreme Court and extension of Emergency provision of the Indian Constitution at the request of the State Government. Formation of the Plebescite Front Following the overthrow of Sheikh Abdullah, his lieutenant Mirza Afzal Beg formed the Plebiscite Front on 9 August 1955 to fight for the plebiscite demand and the unconditional release of Sheikh Abdullah who had been arrested after his removal. The activities of the Plebiscite Front eventually led to the institution of the Kashmir Conspiracy Case in 1958 and two other cases. The release of Sheikh Abdullah following the withdrawal of the Kashmir Conspiracy Case in 1964 gave a new impetus to the party and Sheikh Abdullah and Mirza Afzal Beg launched an offensive approach by instigating the people against India. They also carried out anti- India propaganda abroad which led to their fresh detention in May 1965. This led to the decline in the activities of the Plebiscite Front. However, with the release of Sheikh Abdullah in January 1968, the Plebiscite Front revived its activities and began to spread its influence throughout the valley with Sheikh Abdullah reverting to open attacks against India, besides challenging the finality of the accession. Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad relinquished his office in October 1963 under the Kamraj Plan and was succeeded by Shamshudin as the prime minister of the state (the nomenclature of PM was changed to Chief Minister in 1964). The theft of the holy relic from Hazratbal shrine in December 1963 led to a widespread mass upsurge and riots for a month till the holy relic was recovered and identified. By leading these widespread agitations, Mir Waiz Maulvi Farooq launched his career in Kashmir politics although he was only 19 years old. After the holy relic episode, G.M. Sadiq became the chief minister of the State. Indo-Pak War of 1965 The Pakistani invasion of India in 1965, similar to that of 1947, was a well thought out diabolical plan consistent with Pakistan's anti-India and annex-Kashmir policies pursued since its formation. The objectives and modus operandi were the same. Pakistan-trained infiltrators supported by its regular army soldiers were pushed into Indian territory with the same purpose of sabotage, disruption and distribution of arms among the locals to start a guerrilla uprising. The prevailing conditions which encouraged Pakistan to undertake the misadventure were in fact, construed as ideal by Pakistan. The death in May 1964 of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and the coming to power of the late Lal Bahadur Shastri as Nehru's successor were treated by Pakistan as an encouragement to complete its unfinished war of 1947. Shastri was considered as a weakling and India was perceived as being deeply pre-occupied with its internal crises. Therefore, Pakistan assumed that India would not be able to react effectively to the situation. Simultaneously, article 356 and 357 of the Indian constitution which provided for governor's rule were extended to J&K under the process of integration. This was considered by Sheikh Abdullah as an encroachment on Kashmir's status as the article, in fact, provided for the governor's rule without the consent of the state legislature. The resentments expressed by Sheikh Abdullah were also construed as a probable Kashmiri support to Pakistan in the eventuality of a war with India. The invasion into J&K in the form of an armed infiltration in small numbers started from August 1965. The Pak incursions in J&K continued for about a month till the ceasefire was effected under the aegis of the UN Security Council on 23 September 1965. The invaders were repulsed by the Indian army and Pakistan's 'Operation Gibraltar' resulted in a total failure. The Kashmiris' support, in fact, was miscalculated by the Pakistani authorities and the invaders. Both the countries later signed the Tashkent Declaration on 10 January 1966 which provided for a temporary truce.During the 1965 Indo-Pak war, the efforts of Pakistan to win over the Kashmiri population did not get any appreciable response and the Pakistani infiltrators were beaten back. Meanwhile, the anti-India and pro-Pakistan activities of the Plebiscite Front (PF) led to its ban in January 1971 under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act and Sheikh Abdullah, M.A. Beg and G.M. Shah were ordered to leave the State. The activities of the PF received considerable setback after the Indo-Pak war of 1971 and the consequent creation of Bangladesh. The reality of the situation had a sobering impact on Sheikh Abdullah and his supporters and they started thinking in terms of evolving a solution of the Kashmir problem within the frame work of the Indian Constitution and therefore, started laying more emphasis on autonomy. This change in the attitude of the Plebiscite Front leaders resulted in prolonged negotiations leading to the Kashmir Accord of February 1975. Under this accord, Sheikh Abdullah was allowed to form the government in J&K. The Congress (I) government in the State led by Mir Qasim allowed Sheikh Abdullah to revive the National Conference (NC) only after he accepted the finality of the Accession and the dissolution of the PF. Fresh elections were held in June 1977 and the NC under the leadership of Sheikh Abdullah returned to power with majority.

Friday 6 November 2009

رہبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی حضرت آیت اللہ العظمی خامنہ ای

رہبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی حضرت آیت اللہ العظمی خامنہ ای نے نماز کے سترھویں اجلاس کے نام ایک پیغام میں اس سال کے اجلاس کو جوانوں کے نام سے موسوم کرنے کو اچھا اور پسندیدہ عمل قرار دیتے ہوئے فرمایا: جوانوں کو نماز کی نورانیت اور بہجت سے آشنا کرنا ان کی بہت بڑی خدمت ہے اور وہ اس کی بدولت مستقبل کو اپنے پختہ عزم کے ساتھ تعمیر کریں گے۔ رہبر معظم کے پیغام کا متن حسب ذیل ہے: بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم اس سال کے اجلاس کو جوانوں کے نام سے موسوم کرنا اچھا اور پسندیدہ عمل ہے جو اس راز و نیاز اور فیض الہی کے سرچشمہ پر صحیح نگاہ کا غماز ہے جوانوں کے پاک و پاکیز دل وہ مرکز ہیں جہاں پر یہ نورانی چراغ اپنے نور و گرمی سے معنوی راستوں میں ہدایت اور منحرف راستوں سے نجات کا باعث بن سکتا ہے جوانوں کو نماز کی نورانیت اور بہجت سے آگاہ کرنا ان کی حال و استقبال میں بہت بڑی خدمت ہے جسے وہ اپنے پختہ عزم و ارادہ کے ساتھ تعمیر کریں گے۔ میری سفارش یہ ہے کہ مسجد کو بھی جوانوں کے دلوں کی طرح پاک وپاکیزہ اور شوق و نشاط سے لبریز کریں مسجد بھی ایسا مرکز ہونا چاہیے جہاں نماز کا چراغ روشن و تابناک رہے اور معرفت و محبت و انس و صفا کا نور اس میں ساطع رہے آئمہ جماعات، امناء کمیٹیوں اور دوسرے خدمتگزاروں کو اس عظیم اور مؤثر کام کو انجام دینے میں اپنے دوش پر اس ذمہ داری کو محسوس کرنا چاہیے خدا وند متعال کی بارگاہ سے نماز کے سلسلے میں اجلاس منعقد کرنے والے تمام افراد بالخصوص جناب حجۃ الاسلام قرائتی جو ثابت قدم اور استوار انسان ہیں توفیقات کا طالب ہوں۔

Wednesday 28 October 2009

Partition of Bengal (1905)

The province of Bengal had an area of 489,500 sq. km. and a population of over 80 million. Eastern Bengal was almost isolated from the western part by geography and poor communications. In 1836, the upper provinces were placed under a lieutenant governor, and in 1854 the Governor-General-In-Council was relieved of the direct administration of Bengal. In 1874 Assam, including Sylhet, was severed from Bengal to form a Chief-Commissionership, and the Lushai Hills were added to it in 1898.Partitioning Bengal was first considered in 1903. There were also additional proposals to separate Chittagong and the districts of Dhaka and Mymensingh from Bengal and attaching them to the province of Assam. In a similar way, Chhota Nagpur was to be incorporated with the central provinces. The government officially published the idea in January 1904, and in February, Lord Curzon made an official tour to eastern districts of Bengal to assess public opinion on the partition. He consulted with leading personalities and delivered speeches at Dhaka, Chittagong and Mymensingh explaining the government's stand on partition. The Partition of Bengal in 1905, was made on October 16, by then Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon. Partition was promoted for administrative regions; Bengal was as large as France but with a significantly larger population. The eastern region was thought to be neglected and under-governed. By splitting the province, an improved administration could be established in the east where, subsequently, the population would benefit from new schools and employment opportunities. However, other motives lurked behind the partition plan. Bengali Hindus were in the forefront of political agitation for greater participation in governance; their position would be weakened, since Muslims would now dominate in the East. Hindus tended to oppose partition, which was more popular among Muslims. What followed partition, however, stimulated an almost national anti-British movement that involved non-violent and violent protests, boycotts and even an assassination attempt against the Governor of the new province of West Bengal. Partition barely lasted half a decade, before it was annulled in 1911. Britain's policy of divide et impera which lay behind partition, however, continued to impact on the re-united province. In 1919, separate elections were established for Muslims and Hindus. Before this, many members of both communities had advocated national solidarity of all Bengalis. Now, distinctive communities developed, with their own political agendas. Muslims, too, dominated the Legislature, due to their overall numerical strength of roughly twenty eight to twenty two million. Nationally, Hindus and Muslims began to demand the creation of two independent states, one to be formed in majority Hindu and one in majority Muslim areas with most Bengali Hindus now supporting partitioning Bengal on this basis. The Muslims wanted the whole province to join the Muslim state, Pakistan. In 1947, Bengal was partitioned for the second time, this time specifically on religious grounds. It became East Pakistan. However, in 1971 East Pakistan became the independent state of Bangladesh after a successful war for liberation with the West Pakistani military regime. Partition may sometimes be necessary as a pragmatic strategy to avoid bloodshed but more often than not this leads to new problems that divide even more people.Almost always, partition produces discontent among minorities on both sides of the border. Both partitions of Bengal saw bloodshed. The new province would consist of the state of Hill Tripura, the Divisions of Chittagong, Dhaka and Rajshahi (excluding Darjeeling) and the district of Malda incorporated with Assam province. Bengal was to surrender not only these large eastern territories but also to cede to the Central Provinces the five Hindi-speaking states. On the western side it was offered Sambalpur and five minor Oriya-speaking states from the Central Provinces. Bengal would be left with an area of 141,580 sq. miles and population of 54 million, of which 42 million would be Hindus and 9 million Muslims. The new province was named Eastern Bengal and Assam with Dhaka as its capital and subsidiary headquarters at Chittagong. Its area would be 106,540 sq. miles with a population of 31 million, where 18 million would be Muslims and 12 million Hindus. Administration would consist of a Legislative Council, a Board of Revenue of two members, and the jurisdiction of the Calcutta High Court would be left undisturbed. The government pointed out that Eastern Bengal and Assam would have a clearly demarcated western boundary and well defined geographical, ethnological, linguistic and social characteristics. The government of India promulgated their final decision in a resolution dated July 19, 1905 and the partition of Bengal was effected on October 16 of same year. This created a huge political crisis. The Muslims in East Bengal had the impression that a separate region would give them more opportunity for education, employment etc. However, the partition was not liked by the people in West Bengal and a huge amount of nationalist literature was created there during this period. Opposition by Indian National Congress was led by Sir Henry John Stedman Cotton who had been Chief Commissioner of Assam, but Curzon was not to be moved. Later, Cotton, now Liberal MP for Nottingham East coordinated the successful campaign to oust the first lieutenant-governor of East Bengal, Sir Bampfylde Fuller. In 1906, Rabindranath Tagore wrote Amar Shonar Bangla as a rallying cry for proponents of annulment of Partition, which, much later, in 1972, became the national anthem of Bangladesh. Due to these political protests, the two parts of Bengal were reunited in 1911. A new partition which divided the province on linguistic, rather than religious, grounds followed, with the Hindi, Oriya and Assamese areas separated to form separate administrative units. The administrative capital of British India was moved from Calcutta to New Delhi as well. However, conflict between Muslims and Hindus resulted in new laws having to be introduced so as to satisfy the political needs of both groups.

Tuesday 22 September 2009

Heredity

An important result of the reproductive cycle is production of similar featured individuals for generations. The transmission of characteristics through successive generations refers to heredity. These characteristics include all physical, physiological and psychological characteristics in organisms. We refer to them as traits. The study of the mechanism of transmission of characteristics from parents to the next generations is called genetics.In case of height, the tall plants of P generation are represented as TT and the short plants as tt. Each parent produces only one type of gamete. Tall plants produce gametes having allele 'T' and short plants produce allele having t gametes. When these two types of gametes fuse, the resultant plants are heterozygous (Tt). However, only tallness is expressed, as all plants of this generation are tall. Thus, tallness is the dominant allele and shortness is the recessive allele. Thus the recessive allele remains hidden in the first generation and becomes expressed on self-pollination in the next generation. The F1 generation plants are then self-pollinated. This results in tall and short plants in the ratio 3:1. This is called the phenotypic ratio. Of the tall plants, 1/3rd of the plants are homozygous for tallness and the remaining 2/3rd are heterozygous. The heterozygous plants on self-fertilization again result in offspring that show 3:1 ratio for tallness to dwarf ness. Thus the genotypic ratio in the F2 generation is 1:2:1. This means that 1/3rd are tall and homozygous, 2/3rd are tall and heterozygous and 1/3rd are dwarf and homozygous. Note that recessive traits are phenotypically expressed only in the homozygous genotype. Similar crossing experiments were also carried out with more than one trait. However, it is not possible to follow all the traits at the same time. The other traits studied by Mendel in garden pea were colour of the seed, the shape of the seed, colour of the seed coat, the flower colour, flower position, pod colour and pod shape. The crosses that study two traits together are called the dihybrid crosses. In the dihybrid crosses, it was found that the two traits were inherited independent of each other. The dominant alleles for each of the two traits asserted their dominance independent of the other. Based on his experiments Mendel explained the mechanism of inheritance with the help of laws he formulated. These laws summarizing his observations are: Law of Unit Characters Law of Dominance Law of Segregation Law of Independent Assortment Law of Unit Characters According to this law, all the traits are separate entities or units by themselves. Their inheritance is controlled by 'factors', now known as genes. Law of Dominance Each gene has more than one form of expression. These forms of expressions are called alleles or allelomorphs. Each pair of alleles will have a dominant allele and a recessive allele. In the presence of the dominant gene, the recessive gene will never express itself. Only if both the alleles are recessive, the recessive trait will be exhibited. Law of Segregation This is also called the law of purity of gametes. According to this law, the gametes are pure for a particular trait. This is because the alleles of a pair separate during gamete formation and again come together after fertilization. Therefore, in each gamete only either of the two alleles is present and it is pure for that trait. Law of Independent Assortment This law explains how more than one trait is inherited. According to this law, when there are two pairs of alleles, all four alleles assert themselves independently and are inherited independently. How do these Traits get Expressed? The genetic material that controls a characteristics or a trait is a nucleoprotein called chromatin. The chromatin material just before cell division forms into chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of two longitudinal strands called the chromatids. Inherited Traits A man's characteristics, such as height, colour of the eyes, intelligence, etc. are all inheritable. Often we see that the children of parents with blue eyes would get blue eyes; baldness passes on in the family from one generation to another; even disorders like diabetes and heart diseases are often inherited. One should know how these traits pass on and the rules that govern the inheritance of traits. Rules for the Inheritance of Traits - Mendel's Contribution Gregor Mendel, an Austrian monk during 1850s was the first to carry out scientific studies on transmission of characteristics from the parent to the offspring. He selected garden peas as they showed many contrasting traits that were easy to track through the generations. Moreover, these plants are naturally self-pollinated. This made it easy for getting pure lines. Pure line plants will produce only plants of their own type. That is, if a plant bears red flowers, the new plants from its seeds also will bear only red flowers. Thus, these plants are pure for the red flower colour. For cross-pollination, Mendel opened the bud and removed the stamens. This is called emasculation. The emasculated flower was covered with plastic bag. When the flower opened, the stigma was dusted with the pollen of another flower. This produced crossbreeds. Monohybrid Cross In the first experiment, Mendel considered the phenotype - an externally exhibited trait only one at a time. Some of the traits he considered were the height, flower colour, shape of the seed, etc. He first ensured that he had pure-bred tall and pure-bred short plants by selecting seeds from plants that had been self-pollinating for many generations. (Self-pollination is ensured by keeping the flower covered with plastic till seed formation). He selected one tall and one short plant from the pure-bred. He called this the P or parental generation. He cross-pollinated the tall and short plants. In the first generation, he got all tall plants. This generation was called the first filial or F1 generation. Then the plants from F1 generation were self-pollinated and the next generation was called the second filial or the F2 generation. In this generation, the ratio of tall to short plants was found to be 3:1. Of the tall plants, one-third was found to breed true and the other two-thirds on self pollinating again produced plants in 3:1 ratio of tall and short plants. The plants that are produced in the F1 generation are called hybrids as they have a mixture of traits of both the parents. Since, in this case only one trait, i.e., height was considered; this cross is called the monohybrid cross. Physical Basis of Heredity According to Mendel, the genotype i.e., the combination of genes or the genetic constitution is made of certain structures called factors. The factors controlled the inheritance of all traits. These factors are present in pairs. The factors are now called genes. Thus the physical basis of heredity is the genes or factors. The different expressions of the same genes are called alleles. Each trait may be represented with an alphabet. If the alphabet T represents height, T represents tallness and t represents shortness. If the letter R represents the colour of the flower, R represents red and r represents white. General convention is to represent the dominant character or the character expressed in F, generation by capital letter. Further, each individual for sexual reproduction produces gametes. Gametes are haploid. Each gamete will have only one allele for each trait. Thus the gametes will be of two kinds - having allele T or t. Since each individual is formed by the fusion of gametes, they are represented by writing two letters - TT, Tt or tt depending on their origin. If the plants are pure breeds producing only one type of offspring, they are called homozygous (TT or tt). If the plants produce both tall and short plants among the offspring, then they are heterozygous (Tt).The chromosomes are present in pairs. The pairs are called the homologous pairs. A species will always have the same number of chromosomes. This is called the chromosome number and it will always be an even number. This number is called the diploid number. During gamete formation, the homologous chromosomes separate and the gametes will have only half the number of chromosomes. This number is called the haploid number. Thus the somatic or the vegetative cells of all organisms are diploid and the gamet Heredity An important result of the reproductive cycle is production of similar featured individuals for generations. The transmission of characteristics through successive generations refers to heredity. These characteristics include all physical, physiological and psychological characteristics in organisms. We refer to them as traits. The study of the mechanism of transmission of characteristics from parents to the next generations is called genetics. Inherited Traits A man's characteristics, such as height, colour of the eyes, intelligence, etc. are all inheritable. Often we see that the children of parents with blue eyes would get blue eyes; baldness passes on in the family from one generation to another; even disorders like diabetes and heart diseases are often inherited. One should know how these traits pass on and the rules that govern the inheritance of traits. Rules for the Inheritance of Traits - Mendel's Contribution Gregor Mendel, an Austrian monk during 1850s was the first to carry out scientific studies on transmission of characteristics from the parent to the offspring. He selected garden peas as they showed many contrasting traits that were easy to track through the generations. Moreover, these plants are naturally self-pollinated. This made it easy for getting pure lines. Pure line plants will produce only plants of their own type. That is, if a plant bears red flowers, the new plants from its seeds also will bear only red flowers. Thus, these plants are pure for the red flower colour. For cross-pollination, Mendel opened the bud and removed the stamens. This is called emasculation. The emasculated flower was covered with plastic bag. When the flower opened, the stigma was dusted with the pollen of another flower. This produced crossbreeds. Monohybrid Cross In the first experiment, Mendel considered the phenotype - an externally exhibited trait only one at a time. Some of the traits he considered were the height, flower colour, shape of the seed, etc. He first ensured that he had pure-bred tall and pure-bred short plants by selecting seeds from plants that had been self-pollinating for many generations. (Self-pollination is ensured by keeping the flower covered with plastic till seed formation). He selected one tall and one short plant from the pure-bred. He called this the P or parental generation. He cross-pollinated the tall and short plants. In the first generation, he got all tall plants. This generation was called the first filial or F1 generation. Then the plants from F1 generation were self-pollinated and the next generation was called the second filial or the F2 generation. In this generation, the ratio of tall to short plants was found to be 3:1. Of the tall plants, one-third was found to breed true and the other two-thirds on self pollinating again produced plants in 3:1 ratio of tall and short plants. The plants that are produced in the F1 generation are called hybrids as they have a mixture of traits of both the parents. Since, in this case only one trait, i.e., height was considered; this cross is called the monohybrid cross. Physical Basis of Heredity According to Mendel, the genotype i.e., the combination of genes or the genetic constitution is made of certain structures called factors. The factors controlled the inheritance of all traits. These factors are present in pairs. The factors are now called genes. Thus the physical basis of heredity is the genes or factors. The different expressions of the same genes are called alleles. Each trait may be represented with an alphabet. If the alphabet T represents height, T represents tallness and t represents shortness. If the letter R represents the colour of the flower, R represents red and r represents white. General convention is to represent the dominant character or the character expressed in F, generation by capital letter. Further, each individual for sexual reproduction produces gametes. Gametes are haploid. Each gamete will have only one allele for each trait. Thus the gametes will be of two kinds - having allele T or t. Since each individual is formed by the fusion of gametes, they are represented by writing two letters - TT, Tt or tt depending on their origin. If the plants are pure breeds producing only one type of offspring, they are called homozygous (TT or tt). If the plants produce both tall and short plants among the offspring, then they are heterozygous (Tt). In case of height, the tall plants of P generation are represented as TT and the short plants as tt. Each parent produces only one type of gamete. Tall plants produce gametes having allele 'T' and short plants produce allele having t gametes. When these two types of gametes fuse, the resultant plants are heterozygous (Tt). However, only tallness is expressed, as all plants of this generation are tall. Thus, tallness is the dominant allele and shortness is the recessive allele. Thus the recessive allele remains hidden in the first generation and becomes expressed on self-pollination in the next generation. The F1 generation plants are then self-pollinated. This results in tall and short plants in the ratio 3:1. This is called the phenotypic ratio. Of the tall plants, 1/3rd of the plants are homozygous for tallness and the remaining 2/3rd are heterozygous. The heterozygous plants on self-fertilization again result in offspring that show 3:1 ratio for tallness to dwarf ness. Thus the genotypic ratio in the F2 generation is 1:2:1. This means that 1/3rd are tall and homozygous, 2/3rd are tall and heterozygous and 1/3rd are dwarf and homozygous. Note that recessive traits are phenotypically expressed only in the homozygous genotype. Similar crossing experiments were also carried out with more than one trait. However, it is not possible to follow all the traits at the same time. The other traits studied by Mendel in garden pea were colour of the seed, the shape of the seed, colour of the seed coat, the flower colour, flower position, pod colour and pod shape. The crosses that study two traits together are called the dihybrid crosses. In the dihybrid crosses, it was found that the two traits were inherited independent of each other. The dominant alleles for each of the two traits asserted their dominance independent of the other. Based on his experiments Mendel explained the mechanism of inheritance with the help of laws he formulated. These laws summarizing his observations are: Law of Unit Characters Law of Dominance Law of Segregation Law of Independent Assortment Law of Unit Characters According to this law, all the traits are separate entities or units by themselves. Their inheritance is controlled by 'factors', now known as genes. Law of Dominance Each gene has more than one form of expression. These forms of expressions are called alleles or allelomorphs. Each pair of alleles will have a dominant allele and a recessive allele. In the presence of the dominant gene, the recessive gene will never express itself. Only if both the alleles are recessive, the recessive trait will be exhibited. Law of Segregation This is also called the law of purity of gametes. According to this law, the gametes are pure for a particular trait. This is because the alleles of a pair separate during gamete formation and again come together after fertilization. Therefore, in each gamete only either of the two alleles is present and it is pure for that trait. Law of Independent Assortment This law explains how more than one trait is inherited. According to this law, when there are two pairs of alleles, all four alleles assert themselves independently and are inherited independently. How do these Traits get Expressed? The genetic material that controls a characteristics or a trait is a nucleoprotein called chromatin. The chromatin material just before cell division forms into chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of two longitudinal strands called the chromatids. The chromosomes are present in pairs. The pairs are called the homologous pairs. A species will always have the same number of chromosomes. This is called the chromosome number and it will always be an even number. This number is called the diploid number. During gamete formation, the homologous chromosomes separate and the gametes will have only half the number of chromosomes. This number is called the haploid number. Thus the somatic or the vegetative cells of all organisms are diploid and the gametes are haploid. The chromosome numbers of some of the plants and animals are given below: Plant Somatic cell(2n) Chromosome No. Animal Somatic (2n) Chromosome No. Field bean 12 Ascaris 2 Garden pea 14 Mosquito (Culex) 6 Onion 16 Fruit fly 8 cabbage 18 housefly 12 Maize 20 frog 24 Rice 24 House bee 32 Wheat 42 cat 38 Potato 48 mouse 40 Cotton 52 man 46 sugarcane 80 horse 64 Whatever may be the number of chromosomes, it is possible to keep track of the behaviour of these chromosomes as they are all different in some re The pictorial representation of the entire set of chromosomes is called the karyogram. Autosomes and Sex Chromosomes As can be seen from the human karyogram, the chromosomes are classified into two types, autosomes and sex chromosomes. The autosomes have homologous chromosomes as pairs whereas the sex chromosomes are of two different types - X and Y. A female has two X-chromosomes and a male has an X and a Y chromosome. Each chromosome has a double helical DNA molecule. DNA or Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA is a double stranded molecule (double helix) with each strand being made up of many nucleotide units. Each nucleotide is made up of a nitrogenous base, a sugar molecule and a phosphoric acid molecule. Each DNA molecule has two such polynucleotide chains joined to each other by hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen bonds are between the nitrogenous bases of the opposite nucleotides. If the polynucleotide chains are the sides of the ladder, the bonds can be compared to the rungs of the ladder. The whole molecule can be likened to a rope ladder twisted around to from a helical structure. The DNA molecule is twisted around a core of proteins. Short chains of the DNA form the genes. Each gene is, therefore, a series of nucleotides in a particular sequence. The genes are arranged in a linear manner on the chromosomes. The position of a gene on the chromosome is called the locus. It always remains the same for a gene. The alleles of a gene are present on the homologous chromosomes at the same loci. Each gene codes for a particular trait. The proteins part of the DNA control the characteristics of a trait. Just when Mendel was making his observations it was the American scientist William Sutton who noticed the similarities between the behaviour of the Mendelian factors or genes and that of the chromosomes during meiosis. He noticed the following similarities: Both occurred in pairs - genes as alleles and chromosomes as homologous chromosomes. Both separated from the pairs and entered the gametes independently - each gamete received only one of the alleles of a pair and also received only one of the homologous chromosomes during meiosis. The pairs of both are restored during fertilization - the zygotes receive one allele each from the two parents through the gametes and the zygotes also receive the two homologous chromosomes, one from each parent, during fertilization. The above observations led Sutton and Boveri to formulate the Chromosomal theory of inheritance, independently in 1902. According to this theory, Each adult organism grows from a zygote. The zygote is a diploid cell having two sets of chromosomes - maternal and paternal. The zygote by mitotic divisions results in the formation of an adult and thus, all the vegetative or somatic cells of an organism are diploid with two sets of chromosomes. The chromosomes maintain their individuality through out the life cycle of the organism. The chromosomes contain the Mendelian factors or genes, which determine the various characteristics of an individual. In asexual reproduction similar rules of inheritance are followed. Here the DNA material is distributed equally to their progeny. Here, the paternal and maternal difference is not present as the chromosomes involve a single parent. Sex Determination From the above observations of production of different traits, it is clear that in sexual reproduction, the genetic materials from the two sexes participating are different from each other. All human chromosomes are not paired similarly, the sex chromosomes in men is odd in not always being a perfect pair. It is a mismatched pair in which one is a normal-sized X while the other is a short one called Y. Women have a perfect pair of sex chromosomes, both called X. So women are XX, while men are XY. The sex of organisms is dependent on different factors of environment, temperature or choice. However, in human beings, the sex of the individual is largely genetically determined. Parental genes decide whether the offspring will be boy or girl. How is the sex of a newborn human determined by genetic inheritance? During the formation of gametes, the females will have only one type of gametes, all with one X chromosome. However, the males will produce two types of gametes or sperms, half with X chromosome and half with Y chromosome. Thus the sex of a zygote is determined by which male gamete fuses with the female gamete. If the X gamete fuses with the female gamete (also X) the zygote will be a female. If the Y gamete fused with the female gamete, the zygote will be a male. This type of sex determination is called XX-XY type. The sex of organisms is dependent on different factors of environment, temperature or choice. However, in human beings, the sex of the individual is largely genetically determined. Parental genes decide whether the offspring will be boy or girl. How is the sex of a newborn human determined by genetic inheritance? During the formation of gametes, the females will have only one type of gametes, all with one X chromosome. However, the males will produce two types of gametes or sperms, half with X chromosome and half with Y chromosome. Thus the sex of a zygote is determined by which male gamete fuses with the female gamete. If the X gamete fuses with the female gamete (also X) the zygote will be a female. If the Y gamete fused with the female gamete, the zygote will be a male. This type of sex determination is called XX-XY type.

Wednesday 26 August 2009

دعاى شب هاى دهه آخر ماه مبارك رمضان

همچنين دعاى ديگرى كه آن حضرت از رسول خدا(صلى الله عليه وآله) نقل كرده است بخواند:اَللّهُمَّ اِنِّى اَسْئَلُكَ اِخْباتَ الْمُخْبِتينَ، وَاِخْلاصَ الْمُوقِنينَ، وَمُرافَقَةَخدايا از تو خواهم اطمينان و خشوع خاشعان درگاهت را و اخلاص اهل يقين و رفاقتالاَْبْرارِ، وَاسْتِحْقاقَ حَقائِقِ الاْيمانِ، وَالْغَنيمَةَ مِنْ كُلِّ بِرٍّ، وَالسَّلامَةَ مِنْبا نيكان و استحقاق پيدا كردن براى درك حقايق ايمان و نصيبى از هر خير و سلامتى ازكُلِّ اِثْم، وَوُجُوبَ رَحْمَتِـكَ وَعـَزآئِمَ مَغْفِرَتِكَ، وَالْفَوْزَ بِـالْجَـنَّةِ،هر گناه و لازم شدن مهر و رحمتت و موجبات آمرزشت و رسيدن به بهشتوَالنَّجاةَ مِـنَ النّـارِ.(27)و رهايى از دوزخ.براى شروع در تلاوت قرآن و پايان آن دعايى از امام صادق(عليه السلام) نقل شده است كه پيش از اين گذشت

تقویم ماه مبارک

دهم ماهمصادف با وفات حضرت خديجه كبرى(عليها السلام) يكى از بزرگترين زنان جهان (در سال دهم بعثت) است.(1) پانزدهم ماهروز ولادت سبط اكبر رسول خدا(صلى الله عليه وآله)، حضرت امام حسن مجتبى(عليه السلام) (در سال سوم هجرى) است.(2) هفدهم ماهسال روز پيروزى در جنگ بدر در سال دوم هجرى است.(3) نوزدهم ماهسالروز ضربت خوردن امير مؤمنان على(عليه السلام) به دست ابن ملجم اشقى الآخرين (در سال چهلم هجرى) است.(4) بيست و يكم ماهسالروز شهادت مولاى متّقيان، امير مؤمنان على بن ابى طالب(عليه السلام) (در سال چهلم هجرى) است كه جهان اسلام را در غم و اندوه عظيمى فرو برد.(5) 1. منتهى الآمال، فصل ششم، زندگانى پيامبر اسلام(صلى الله عليه وآله)، و بحارالانوار، جلد 19، صفحه 5 (البتّه روز آن با آنچه در بالا آمد تطبيق ندارد).2. همان مدرك، زندگانى امام حسن(عليه السلام).3. همان مدرك، وقايع سال دوم هجرى.4. همان مدرك، زندگانى حضرت اميرالمؤمنين(عليه السلام).5. همان مدرك.

فضیلت ماه مبارک

آیینی زبان و ادب فارسی تقویم تاریخ --> فضیلت ماه مبارک فضیلت این ماه در تمام سال، ماهى به عظمت ماه پربركت رمضان نيست; زيرا ماهى است كه خداوند آن را جهت اهداى بالاترين هديه خود به جهان بشريّت، يعنى «قرآن مجيد» برگزيده است.از سوى ديگر، ماهى است كه شب قدر در آن واقع شده، شبى كه مقدّرات يكسال انسانها - بر حسب شايستگى ها و لياقت هايشان - تعيين مى گردد و عبادت آن برتر از عبادت هزار ماه است!از سوى سوم، بهار عبادت و ماه تعليم و تربيت، ماه طهارت و پاكى، و ماه تقوا و خودسازى است; ماهى كه مراحل قرب الهى و سير و سلوك الى اللّه را با گام هاى سريع و استوار مى توان پيمود.در اهمّيّت اين ماه همين بس كه پيغمبر اكرم(صلى الله عليه وآله) در آستانه ماه مبارك رمضان طىّ خطبه اى چنين فرمود:«اى مردم! ماه خدا با بركت و رحمت و مغفرت به شما روى آورده; ماهى كه نزد خدا برترين ماه هاست، روزهايش برترين روزها، و شبهايش برترين شبها، و ساعاتش برترين ساعات است.ماهى است كه در آن به ميهمانى خدا دعوت شده ايد، و مورد كرامت و احترام الهى قرار گرفته ايد; نفس هاى شما در آن حكم تسبيح را دارد، خواب شما در آن عبادت، عمل شما مقبولِ (درگاه الهى) و دعاى شما در آن مستجاب است!با نيّت هاى صادق و قلب هاى پاك از خدا بخواهيد كه شما را موفّق به روزه اين ماه و تلاوت قرآن در آن كند; زيرا شقىّ و دور از سعادت كسى است كه در اين ماه (كه درياى رحمت الهى موّاج است) از رحمت و مغفرت او محروم گردد...».سپس دستورهاى مؤكّدى درباره صدقه به نيازمندان، احترام به بزرگترها، محبّت به كوچكترها، صله رحم، حفظ زبان و چشم و گوش از گناه، نوازش يتيمان و توبه از گناه، دعا كردن ـ به ويژه هنگام نمازها ـ فرمود; سپس درباره اهمّيّت افطارى دادنِ روزه داران سخن گفت، تا آن جا كه حتّى كسانى كه توانايى ندارند، مى توانند با دانه اى خرما يا جرعه اى از آب در اين كار خير شركت جويند!در پايان خطبه فرمود: «اى مردم! درهاى بهشت در اين ماه گشوده است، از خداوند بخواهيد آن را به روى شما نبندد، و درهاى دوزخ بسته است، از پروردگارتان بخواهيد آن را به روى شما نگشايد! و شياطين در اين ماه در زنجيرند، از خداوند بخواهيد آنها را بر شما مسلّط نكند!» امير مؤمنان على(عليه السلام) عرض كرد: يا رسول اللّه! برترين اعمال در اين ماه چيست؟ فرمود: پرهيز از گناهان!»(1)خوشبخت و سعادتمند كسانى هستند كه ارزش والاى اين ماه را بشناسند و از بركاتِ بى پايان آن بهره گيرند و مشكلات معنوى و مادّى خود را به بركت روزه ها و عبادات در اين ماه حل كنند.البتّه براى بهره گيرى بيشتر از بركات مادّى و معنوى و آثار و ثواب هاى ماه مبارك رمضان، نبايد تنها به روزه گرفتن اكتفا كرد، بلكه بايد از گناهان اجتناب نمود و با خودسازى و مراقبت و دورى از آلودگى ها، جان خويش را در معرض وزش نفحات رحمانى و عنايات ويژه سبحانى قرار داد.بارالها! همه ما را موفّق بدار، و قرين رحمت و عنايت كن.